10 Important application of GIS in Environmental Sciences
The GIS is a tool that is used to collect, analyze and store geographic information using software and computer systems, and then the information is used by a verity of entities or used in decision making and planning. Accordingly, GIS has various applications in different sectors, one of the most important of which is the field of environmental science and engineering. The following ten GIS applications are of the most important applications that are related to the environment.
- Environmental impact assessment:
Environmental Impact Assessment or EIA is one of the most important measures for the conservation of natural resources and the environment. Many human activities have potentially harmful effects on the environment, including building construction, construction of highways, railways, water and gas pipelines, airports and waste disposal centers and ……etc. environmental impact assessment report usually contain specific information about the extent and scope of the projects on the environment and help them to achieve the least environmental damage.
- Crisis management:
Today, a developed GIS system is used to protect the environment against potential crises. This system helps to control different types of crises more rapidly, and also to avoid further losses caused by the crisis.
- Zoning based on the risk of landslide:
one of the most important and dangerous crises is the risk of landslide, and for this purpose, spatial and geological information related to different layers of the earth and to a seatrain region, and with using these information different regions are classified according to the risk of landslide. This categorization helps in identifying areas with higher risk for eventual incident.
- Determine the type of land cover and its use:
land cover is the feature that makeup the surface of the earth. Using land means using it for specific purposes. The GIS tool has a role in determining the use of the land, the type of land cover and the changes that occur in different areas of the land. Also the GIS tool determines the changes that occur both naturally and through human activities, and the effects of those changes.
5. Estimating flood damage:
GIS helps to estimate the amount of funds needed to compensate for flood damage. This application is of great importance for providing assurance for companies, because the tool helps to insure their property, assets and etc. in a seatrain area at a reasonable probability level, and the amount of insurance payment needed after a crisis is calculated.
To be continued…